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A-roads are major routes, they can vary in design from motorway-standard to narrow local roads, and have 1, 2, 3 or 4 digit numbers prefixed with 'A'.

Usually a structure that provides end support for a bridge

Accident black-spots
An area of road where a higher than average number of accidents have occurred.

Accident Investigation and Prevention (AIP)
The role of AIP is to look at data concerning the number of accidents occurring in the road network. They look at the severity and causes of accidents and to establish any accident trends. When accident patterns are identified involving for example right turns or child pedestrians, measures are designed to reduce the risk of similar accidents happening in future.

Active Traffic Management
A combination of roadside and centralised equipment designed to monitor and manage traffic flow, such as: traffic sensors embedded in the road surface and CCTV cameras to detect traffic speed and density; variable message signs (VMS) to relay real-time information to motorists; off-site control rooms with computer systems linking the different equipment

One of the operating companies responsible for maintaining Scotland's trunk road network

At-grade roundabout
A roundabout that is at the same level as the roads that feed into it.

Attenuation ponds
Storage with water treatment facility for run-off water containing possible contaminants prior to release back into rivers and other watercourses and capable of timed release.

The Association of Train Operating Companies

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B-roads are local routes and have 3 or 4 digit numbers prefixed with 'B'.

BEAR Scotland Ltd
One of the operating companies responsible for maintaining Scotland's trunk road network

A location of road where a higher than average number of accidents have occurred

The variety of plant and animal life in a particular area or habitat

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In bridge terms this is a deck or part of the span of a bridge extending out from a fixed support.

Capital projects
Projects that purchase or construct capital assets

A formal or informal arrangement to share journeys with neighbours or work colleagues in order to cut down on car journeys

Closed Circuit Television, used for monitoring.

Class 334 EMU
A suburban electric multiple unit. They were built for SPT/ScotRail outer services in Glasgow, UK.

When they were first introduced in 2000, in common with the other types of Juniper train, they suffered from reliability problems. This status has since changed and they are now among the most reliable units on the SPT network.

SPT acquired a total of 40 units, two of which are for use specifically on the newly opened Larkhall branch. They can be seen in daily use across the SPT electric network, most commonly on the Ayrshire and Inverclyde lines.

Class 314
An electric multiple unit train found on the SPT rail network, generally in South Glasgow and Inverclyde.

These 16 3-car units were introduced in 1979 to operate on the then newly opened Argyle Line. Today, they are mostly found working on the Cathcart Circle, Neilston and (in rush hour) the Newton line.

Class 170
ScotRail introduced the 3 coach Turbostar in 1999 to compliment its fleet of Class 158 "Express Sprinter" DMUs (Diesel Multiple Units).

These were initially used on the Glasgow-Edinburgh shuttle service, but with the leasing of additional units their use has since been extended to Inverness and Aberdeen-bound services from the Central Belt.

In addition, a third group of Class 170s operate suburban services in the Glasgow and Edinburgh areas. These units do not have any First Class accommodation.

Class 322
Class 322 trains are used on North Berwick services. The trains were originally built in 1991 for the Stansted Express service and are being upgraded with new interiors and audio-visual passenger information systems, enhancing passenger comfort and security with onboard CCTV cameras.

Class 318
Class 318 trains are used in Strathclyde and are equipped with new interiors and audio-visual passenger information systems and CCTV cameras are in use to improve security.

Community severance
A physical or psychological barrier created when the speed and volume of traffic on a road can inhibit pedestrians from crossing or travelling alongside the road, or when the noise, pollution and perceived danger associated with heavy traffic discourages people from using local amenities

Compulsory Purchase Order - an order issued by Scottish Ministers for the purchase of land required for the construction of a trunk road or railway line

Concessionary travel
Reduced fares for particular groups e.g. students, older people and the disabled

Consideration stage
Consideration Stage, also known as the Report stage, refers to bills being passed through parliament and provides an opportunity for members who were not part of the committee debating the bill to consider the amendments made by the committee. Additional amendments may be made but only to those clauses already debated in the committee stage. Although it is possible for the bill to be reprinted after this stage it is more likely that the bill will continue as is to the next stage.

Consideration stage
Definition TBC

Convoy/convoy working
Specialist trucks with illuminated signs on the back used to escort traffic slowly through roadworks

Corporate governance
The relationship of a company to its shareholders or to society in general

A drain crossing under a road or embankment.

Cyclic maintenance
Maintenance that occurs in cycles, such as seasonal maintenance

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Data Protection Act 1998
The Data Protection Act 1998 gives individuals certain rights regarding information held about them. You can find out more at the Information Commissioner's Website

Department for Transport (DfT)
The Department for Transport oversees the delivery of a safe and secure transport system in England and Wales

The removal of plants from a site

Diesel Multiple Unit – A train powered by diesel

A section of a government department in charge of a particular area

Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 gives disabled people rights in the areas of employment, education, access to goods, facilities and services, and when buying or renting land and property. You can find out more at the Directgov website

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The remodelling of the existing ground profile to facilitate the construction of a road or railway at appropriate gradient and alignment. The use of earthworks can be as a result of the road/railway being above existing ground i.e on embankment, or below the existing ground and therefore in cutting.

A mound of earth or stone built to hold back water or to support a roadway.

Substances emitted into the air by cars and other motorised vehicles, sometimes harmful.

Electric Multiple Unit – A train powered by electricity

European directives
Legislative acts of the European Union (EU).

Executive Agency
A public institution that carries out some executive functions of the government; it does not set policy or budgets but is free to implement policy and allocate funding as it sees fit.

Express Turbostar
A make and model of train.

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UK-based international passenger group with bus and rail operations spanning two continents; owners of First ScotRail who run the Scottish Rail Franchise.

Flow (in relation to rail freight)
Refers to types of freight such as single customers and single flows of traffic or hopper loading and discharging points for coal and aggregates at quarries and power stations or ISO tank loading at chemical plants and docks as examples.

Authorisation granted to an organisation by the government to run rail services in Scotland.

Franchise Variation
The Franchise variation is a change mechanism that provides a built in flexibility to the Franchise Agreement.

Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002
An act that introduced important new rights to access information held by public authorities. You can find out more at the Scottish Information Commissioner's website

Goods transported in bulk by road, rail or sea.

Freight Facilities Grant (FFG)
Government grant to assist with the extra costs generally associated with moving freight by rail rather than road.

Freight operating companies (FOCs)
FOCs are not franchisees in the same way as passenger train operating companies. They are commercial companies with no public obligation to provide a given level of services.

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Gross Domestic Product - the total value of goods and services produce by a nation

Grade-separated junction
The junction is so constructed, by the use of bridges or underpasses so that the flow of two roads crossing does not interrupt the flow of traffic.

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Hard shoulder running
When the hard shoulder of a road is opened for traffic to ease congestion.

Health & Safety Executive (HSE)
The UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety arising from work activity in Britain.

Heavy cleans
Periodic, intensive cleaning above and beyond the usual daily cleaning.

Heavy goods traffic
Traffic formed of HGVs (Heavy Goods Vehicles).

Heavy Goods Vehicle; vehicles that can carry in excess of 7.5 tonnes of goods. A special driving licence is required to drive an HGV.

High Level Output Specification
The HLOS is the specification of the outputs required from the rail network by Scottish Ministers. It is produced as part of the process established by the Railways Act 2005 to review and set access charges. A parallel process operates in England and Wales. The Access Charges Review for the period 2009 to 2014 will commence in 2007 and the HLOS will be developed to support this.

Human resources.

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Incident Support Unit
Highways Authority representatives who attend the scene of an incident and carry out the first basic engineering assessment and also carry out tasks as necessary for example clearing the carriageway.

Infrastructure projects
Those projects that change the infrastructure of the country. (For example a road or rail project).

Integration/integrated transport system
The principle of ensuring that different modes of transport operate in conjunction with one another.

ITT (Invitation to Tender)
A formal document inviting companies to apply to enter into a competitive process to win a contract of work.

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Joint Performance Improvement Plan
JPIP relates to joint hard performance of ScotRail and Network Rail, such as punctuality, cancellations etc. In 2005/6 there was a transitional arrangement joining together current Performance Improvement Plans (PIPs) from Train Operators (e.g. First ScotRail) and Local Output Commitments (LOCs) from Network Rail.

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Key Performance Indicators
Chosen factors against which the success of a project or organisation is measured and reflected

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'Live-eye' views
Live images of traffic activity on the trunk road network.

Local Authority
Scottish local government bodies - there are 32 Scottish local authorities. Details can be found at the COSLA website (Convention of Scottish Local Authorities).

Local Output Commitment
The Local Output Commitment is a contractual level of service that Network Rail agrees with the First ScotRail franchise. Service performance is measured in terms of delays and cancellations in minutes from the working timetable that is attributed to Network Rail in a given year.

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Changing an organisation from private to state ownership or control.

Network code
The Network Code (formerly the Railtrack Track Access Conditions) is a common set of rules applying to all parties to regulated track access contracts with Network Rail. It generally sets out conditions upon which train operators gain access to the national network; how the timetable is put together; how the network is improved and renewed; how new rolling stock is produced; and how local accountability for local stewardship is delivered.

Network Rail
Network Rail is a private limited company by guarantee with responsibility for the UK's rail infrastructure.

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Office of Rail Regulation (ORR)
The Office of Rail Regulation is economic regulator for the railway industry in the UK.

Operating companies (OCs)
Companies contracted to manage and maintain the trunk road network on behalf of the Scottish Executive.

Optimism bias
The tendency for appraisers to be over-optimistic about key project parameters, optimism bias must be taken into account when estimating costs, resources and time required.

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Schemes that allow people to leave their cars at edge-of-town cars parks and travel into town centres by public transport.

Performance monitoring
A formalised system for measuring the performance of an organisation or service.

Changing an organisation from state ownership or control to a public limited company, often accompanied by the sale of its shares to the public.

The process of acquiring a product or service.

Public Register (Rail)
A record of documents that the public is entitled to access in accordance with statutory legislation. A list of the types of documents to be held in the public register specific to rail is given below:

  • Every designation made by the Scottish Ministers
  • Every Franchise Exemption granted by the Scottish Ministers
  • The ScotRail Franchise Agreement and amendments
  • Every designation of a closure as minor modification
  • Every condition associated with the determination of a closure and as a minor modification, revocations of this type of determination and notices of decisions not to make this type of order
  • Final or provisional orders to Franchise operators to comply with a condition or requirement that it is believed likely that the operator will contravene
  • Penalties imposed by The Scottish Ministers for failure to comply with an order or condition
  • Statements of policy by the Scottish Ministers on penalties

Public transport
All transport systems in which passengers do not travel in their own vehicles, usually trains and buses

Publication Scheme
A mandatory published guide to classes of information that public sector organisations are obliged to make available under the Freedom of Information Act

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Real-time traffic information
Information about current traffic conditions conveyed to motorists via the Traffic Scotland website and roadside variable message signs (VMS).

Rail devolution
The transfer of new rail powers to Scottish Ministers.

Rail franchise
See 'Franchise'

Rail infrastructure
Railway lines, stations, signalling systems, level crossings, bridges, tunnels and other physical structures.

Rail siding
A section of railway line off a main line used to store stationary rolling stock or a short length of rail providing access to and from factories, quarries etc.

The company that took over the rail infrastructure after privitisation of the railways
Regional Transport Partnerships (RTPs).

Reserved Powers
Powers that are the responsibility of Westminster rather than the Scottish Parliament.

Rolling stock companies (ROSCOs)
Lease out rolling stock and motive power to Train Operating Companies, few of which own their own.

Route utilisation strategy
A Route Utilisation Strategy (RUS) is a study which focuses on the short term development of the rail infrastructure network. An RUS provides an analysis of the network capacity and options for future investment in the rail network to improve its capability and performance. An RUS for Scotland is currently being prepared by Network Rail.

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Scottish Government
The Scottish Government is the devolved government for Scotland.

Scottish Government Transport Directorate
The existing body responsible for transport in Scotland. The new Transport Scotland will be taking on certain functions currently exercised by the Transport Directorate.

Scottish Information Commissioner
The Scottish Information Commissioner is responsible for enforcing and promoting the right to access public information created by the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 and the Environmental Information (Scotland) Regulations 2004 both of which came into force on 1 January 2005.

Scottish Ministers
Ministers of the Scottish Parliament

Scottish Planning Assessment (SPA)
The Scotland Planning Assessment (SPA) undertaken by Arup for the Scottish Government and SRA provides input into the process of determining the future role of and strategy for rail in Scotland. The Scotland Planning Assessment (SPA) will provide the basis for the development of the railway in Scotland over the medium to longer term (up to 2026). Scottish Planning Assessment Document

Scottish Road Safety Campaign (SRSC)
The SRSC was founded in 1985 and is funded by the Scottish Government. Its remit is to develop and co-ordinate Scotland-wide road safety initiatives and campaigns. The SRSC works closely with all local authority and police road safety units in an attempt to ensure a co-ordinated approach to road safety in Scotland.

Service quality inspection regime (SQUIRE)
This is a customer focussed inspection system that measures First ScotRail performance on the condition of stations and trains carriages in areas such as cleanliness, passenger comfort, facilities, access to stations, customer ticketing services and passenger information.

Sleeper services
These are overnight train services. First ScotRail's Caledonian Sleepers operate between London Euston and Scotland.

The underside of a structural component, such as a beam, arch, staircase, or cornice.

Soft verges
Refers to verges that integrate with the surrounding landscape, such as soft ground leading up to a field, and can vary in area and gradient.

Strategic projects review
The National Transport Agency will undertake a strategic projects review covering all transport modes, with input from local authorities, regional transport partnerships, transport operators, business and users.

Sustainable transport
A sustainable transportation system is one that:

  • Allows the basic access needs of individuals and societies to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and with equity within and between generations.
  • Is affordable, operates efficiently, offers choice of transport mode, and supports a vibrant economy.
  • Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, minimises consumption of non-renewable resources, limits consumption of renewable resources to the sustainable yield level, reuses and recycles its components, and minimises the use of land and the production of noise.

Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG)
A document to aid transport planners and decision-makers in the development of transport policies, plans, programmes and projects. STAG v1.0 is available on the Scottish Government website.

Stakeholders/stakeholder organisations
An individual or group with an interest in the success of a group or an organisation in delivering intended results and maintaining the viability of the group or organisation's product and/or service. Stakeholders influence programmes, products, and services.

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA)
Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) provides a systematic method of considering the likely effects on the environment of strategies, plans and programmes that set a broad-based context for future development activity within the transport framework.

Strategic Rail Authority (SRA)
The Strategic Rail Authority (SRA) is the former non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom which was responsible for awarding passenger rail franchises and freight grants and for providing strategic direction for Britain's railway industry. As a result of the Railways Act 2005, the SRA is being wound up with its functions passing to the Department for Transport and the Scottish Government.

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Sealed offers naming a price to do a job. The competitors for the job must submit their tenders by a certain deadline, after which all are opened together, and typically the lowest tender wins the project.

Point through which a vehicle may travel to continue on its journey that requires payment.

Third Generation Operating Contracts
Refers to trunk road maintenance contracts and the process through which service requirements are determined and tendered for, the latest phase being 3rd generation after the 1st and 2nd generation contracts came to an end.

Detailed, precise description of a place or region.

Track access contracts
Since the re-organisation of the railways in April 1994, operators of freight trains have been required to pay charges to Network Rail plc for access to the rail network.

Track Access Grant
Designed to assist freight service operators in meeting track access charges levied by Network Rail for freight flows that would otherwise transfer to road or could not be attracted to rail. The objective is to secure environmental and wider benefits arising from the avoidance of heavy lorry movements on Scotland's roads.

Traffic Scotland
Traffic Scotland is a real time road information service as part of the trunk road network management.

Transport Act 2000
The Act contains measures to create a more integrated transport system and provide for a public-private partnership for National Air Traffic Services Ltd ("NATS"). The Act aims to improve local passenger transport services, and reduce road congestion and pollution. The use of railways will be promoted through the Strategic Rail Authority.
The Act consists of five parts; Air Traffic, Local Transport, Road User Charging and Workplace Parking Levy, Railways, Miscellaneous and Supplementary.

Transport Model for Scotland (TMfS)
The Transport Model for Scotland is a multi-modal model covering strategic inter-urban travel within Scotland.

Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)
The UK's Transport Research Laboratory. TRL is an internationally recognised centre of excellence providing world class research, consultancy, advice and testing for all aspects of transport.

Trunk Roads
A trunk road is a major road, usually connecting one or more cities, ports, airports, etc. which is the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic. Many trunk roads have segregated lanes, or are motorway standard.

Trunk Road Biodiversity Action Plan
Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for the Scottish trunk road network. It sets out the commitment of the Scottish Government to conserve and enhance biodiversity on Scotland's trunk road network. The overall goal of the Trunk Road Biodiversity Action Plan (TRBAP) is to contribute to biodiversity objectives by protecting Scotland's natural heritage on and adjacent to the trunk road network using cost-effective techniques.

Turbostar has been in production since 1998. Since then over 300 vehicles have been produced and entered service with 7 different operators. The new Class 170s feature a number of technical improvements, including: Electrical cross feeding, start battery protection and updated interior equipment.

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UK Ministers
Ministers of the United Kingdom parliament.

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Variable Message Signs
LED based products that are used in traffic management control such as integrated traffic management systems, driver information and public information displays.

Variable speed limits
On some motorways, variable speed limits operate. The signs indicating these are mandatory speed limit signs but produced by lamps. When not in use they show a blank grey or black face.

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Waterborne Freight Grant
To assist with operating costs associated with moving freight by water. Waterbourne Freight Grant

White paper
White Papers are government statements of policy, often containing proposals for changes in the law. These may be debated in Parliament before a Bill is introduced.

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