Strategic Transport Projects Review Final Report

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Publication Date: 
02/11/2009
Publication Summary: 

Annex A: Summary of Draft Investments

1 — Strategic Road Safety Plan

Intervention description

A.1 The Scottish Government is prioritising road safety through Scotland’s Road Safety Framework which includes continued commitments for funding Road Safety Scotland and the Safety Camera Programme. A strategic direction to road safety on the trunk road network has been developed. A strategic direction to road safety has been developed through Transport Scotland’s recently published ten year Strategic Road Safety Plan29. In addition, the Scottish Government has published its Road Safety Strategy.

A.2 This intervention relates to a key objective of the Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR) which is to continue the development and delivery of the Strategic Road Safety Plan through the period 2012-2022. Building on this, the relevant proposed measures would be implemented on the strategic road network in order to reduce the rate and severity of road accidents on Scotland’s trunk roads.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.3 The intervention is specifically aimed at reducing accident rates and achieving the national targets for casualty reductions in the UK. Historic targets envisage, by 2010, a 40 per cent reduction in the number of people killed or seriously injured, a 50 per cent reduction in child deaths and serious injuries, when compared with the 1994-8 average, and a 10 per cent reduction in the slight casualty rate.

A.4 The Scottish Road Safety Strategy has updated these to set targets for a 40 per cent reduction in the numbers of people killed and a 55 per cent reduction in the numbers seriously injured by 2020, compared to the average for 2004-08. The targets for reducing deaths or serious injuries to children over the same time have been altered to 50 per cent and 65 per cent respectively. The 10 per cent reduction in slight injury accidents is retained.

A.5 Making Scotland’s roads safer will make an important contribution to the Scottish Government’s Key Objective for a Safer and Stronger Scotland and the STPR objective to promote continuing reduction in accident rates and severity rates across the strategic transport network, recognising the need to continue the work of the Strategic Road Safety Plan through the STPR period. This will support the Scottish Government’s Purpose by increasing the attractiveness of Scotland as a place to live and work, hence attracting high quality businesses and talented migrants, reducing out-migration and securing the productive engagement of an even higher proportion of the population. The Strategic Road Safety Plan therefore provides the framework for the various interventions identified in this report to address these specific STPR objectives.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.6 This intervention links to the Road Safety Strategy and the Road Asset Management Plan30.

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Current Status of Project

A.7 The Strategic Road Safety Plan has recently been published, and is widely supported. This intervention continues the development and delivery of the Strategic Road Safety Plan through the period 2012-2022.

Indicative Costs

A.8 The anticipated cost of helping to deliver the Strategic Road Safety Plan is between £10m and £50m over the course of the STPR period.

Deliverability

A.9 The deliverability of the intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. Although some new and untried technologies may be put forward for implementation as a result of research and development of new techniques, the Strategic Road Safety Plan promotes a structured approach to adopting these techniques, making use of Demonstration Road Safety Projects and knowledge sharing. This approach would be likely to minimise any risks associated with the implementation of new techniques. The collation of road safety statistics to inform any updates of the Plan is a well established procedure. It is expected that any data required to inform the updates can be collected without disruptions to the network.

2 — Maintaining and Safely Operating Scotland’s Rail Network

Intervention description

A.10 This intervention represents the day-to-day management and maintenance of the rail network, carried out by Network Rail in line with the requirements of the Scottish Ministers. The implementation of the existing maintenance regime is designed to provide effective protection of the asset base.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.11 The total rail assets in Scotland are approximately £5 billion. Network Rail receives more than £300 million of direct grant every year to manage the rail network and to maximise its capacity. The funding allocated to Network Rail is for the operation, maintenance and renewal of the rail infrastructure network. This work links directly to this first level of requirement for the Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR) in maintaining and safely operating the network.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.12 The ongoing support for the Scottish rail network underlies the various plans for rail improvement schemes outlined in this report, and the role of rail in the National Transport Strategy (NTS), as outlined in ‘Scotland’s Railways’.

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Current Status of Project

A.13 This is an ongoing process, which is planned to continue throughout the STPR period. This work links directly to the first level of requirement for STPR in maintaining and safely operating the network.

Indicative Costs

A.14 Network Rail currently receives more than £300 million of direct grant every year to manage the rail network in Scotland and to maximise the potential for making use of the existing capacity. The total intervention will cost £3 billion, however this cost will be funded by the direct grant over ten years.

Deliverability

A.15 There would not be any significant technical or operational impacts on the delivery of this intervention, although much of the work involved in maintaining the network requires disruptive possessions to be taken, closing parts of the rail network while the necessary work is carried out safely.

3 — Targeted Programme of Measures to Improve Road Standards between Glasgow and Oban/Fort William (A82)

Intervention description

A.16 This intervention supports the objectives to provide a significant improvement in road standard along the A82 and to reduce the accident severity rates on the route. In addition to a general upgrade of the route the intervention would include measures such as:

  • Carriageway widening at selected locations between Tarbet and Inverarnan;
  • Carriageway widening at selected locations between Corran Ferry and Fort William; and
  • Physical works such as climbing lanes at Loch Tulla, overtaking lay-bys aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities and improving journey time reliability and safety targeted measures such as hard strips, junction improvements and local realignment.

A.17 It is envisaged that individual elements would be delivered in a targeted programme to address identified accident clusters and points where the routes have significant constraints on achieving consistent journey times.

A.18 In addition, speed enforcement cameras would be considered at appropriate locations.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.19 The introduction of physical works to provide safer overtaking opportunities, in conjunction with speed enforcement measures, is expected to improve road safety along the route, and reduce both the accident and fatal accident rates closer to the national levels.

A.20 This is a key route for tourism and as such has a high proportion of infrequent users; the provision of a consistently high standard of carriageway would be of particular significance to the improvement of road safety.

A.21 The combination of these measures on the A82 and other key routes on the corridor would contribute significantly towards the established objectives and significantly improving the accessibility of Argyll and the North West.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.22 This intervention includes a range of safety-related and asset management interventions, as addressed in the Strategic Road Safety Plan and the Road Asset Management Plan.

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Current Status of Project

A.23 A Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) appraisal process has already been carried out on the Route Action Plan for the A8231, and the elements of the Plans agreed. The Route Action Plan forms the basis for this intervention, which has seen Scottish Government commitments to deliver the Crianlarich Bypass and Pulpit Rock improvements. It is expected that this intervention would be welcomed by regular road users in this area as there has been a degree of public interest in improvements on the A82 for some time.

Indicative Costs

A.24 The total estimated cost of full implementation of this scheme is in the range £100-£250 million.

Deliverability

A.25 The Route Action Plan has already been developed to a high level of readiness, and can be implemented within the relatively short term. Due to the rural nature of much of the corridor, design work would have to take account of the local terrain and various environmental sensitivities. This is particularly important as tourism plays a key role in travel on this corridor and the route itself runs through areas of scenic and ecological value.

A.26 The environmental impacts this intervention has on designated sites, valued habitats, protected species and water quality have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined as this intervention is taken forward.

4 — Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity in North and West Scotland

Intervention description

A.27 This intervention supports the objective to reduce the fatal and severe accident rates on strategic routes in North and West Scotland. Targeted programmes of measures are required on these corridors, where specific objectives have been identified to address safety related issues.

A.28 A number of bespoke improvements such as widening, improved alignment and some 2+1 sections are proposed to address identified high severity accident clusters and locations of accident severity along the relevant routes. In addition to the proposed physical works speed enforcement measures could be considered at appropriate locations.

A.29 The bespoke improvements would include measures such as:

  • A9 north of Inverness — Physical works at locations such as Tore Roundabout;
  • A835 between Inverness and Ullapool — Physical works on the A835 aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities, local realignments and localised widening of the carriageway;
  • A82 / A87 / A830 / A887 between Inverness, Fort William, Mallaig and Skye — Physical works aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities, hard strip provision for agricultural vehicles, local realignments and junction improvements; and
  • A96 between Aberdeen and Inverness — Physical works aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities such as: 2+1 sections; climbing lanes and overtaking lay-bys; hard strip provision for agricultural vehicles; local realignments and junction improvements.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.30 The local realignments and junction improvements are expected to improve safety. For example, evidence elsewhere suggests that the introduction of climbing lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents (up to 50 per cent) on single carriageway routes. The introduction of the appropriate speed enforcement measures could also result in the safer operation of the road network, due to a reduction in speeding vehicles. Evidence from trials elsewhere indicate an almost 100 per cent compliance with the speed limit under these systems.

A.31 It is forecast that through the introduction of these measures, the overall number of accidents and the proportion of serious and fatal accidents will reduce to levels closer to the national rate. This will contribute to the Scottish Government’s Purpose of creating a ‘safer and stronger’ Scotland.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.32 This intervention includes a range of safety-related and asset management schemes, as addressed in the Strategic Road Safety Plan and the Road Asset Management Plan.

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Current Status of Project

A.33 Some of the measures required on these routes have been identified in the relevant Route Action Plans and ongoing route management. Some of these measures have already been implemented or are currently committed — others are awaiting approval and / or programming. Improving safety on these routes is likely to be met with a positive public response.

Indicative Costs

A.34 The total estimated cost of full implementation of the above safety schemes is in the range £100-£250 million.

Deliverability

A.35 Much of the work associated with the individual schemes in this intervention has already been developed to a high level. These components, along with the additional safety measures proposed, could be implemented within the short term. Due to the rural nature of many of the corridors final design and implementation work would have to take account of the local terrain and environmental factors when considering deliverability.

5 — Route Management on other Road Corridors

Intervention description

A.36 This includes a series of initiatives to implement road-based improvements with a combination of network optimisation through route management and targeted investment in relatively local interventions. The routes included within this intervention are:

  • Aberdeen and North East Scotland (A90);
  • Edinburgh and Dundee (A92);
  • Ayrshire and Dumfries (A76);
  • Edinburgh and North West England (A68/A7/A702);
  • Edinburgh and North East England (A1); and
  • The A83, A85 and A828.

A.37 These routes generally perform well, and as such no objectives have been established to address corridor specific issues.

A.38 However, there is a need to maintain and safely operate these in the context of a route management strategy. This intervention would include a variety of localised improvements that would be undertaken in tandem, and driven by, the trunk road maintenance contracts. These enhancements would be targeted to bring the physical condition and safety standards of the routes concerned to a level which will support the expected levels of traffic during the period of the review.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.39 There are a number of corridors where no strategic issues relating to network performance have been identified, but there is an ongoing need to maintain and safely operate the network. These route management interventions will perform this role.

A.40 These interventions will address isolated constraints, and although the immediate benefits would be felt at a more local level, for example through isolated junction improvements, the programme of works would contribute towards the need to maintaining and safely operate the network.

A.41 Reductions in accident numbers would be expected at the improved locations, with up to 50 per cent reduction in certain sections. Severity rates are likely to be reduced by new 2+1 and re-aligned sections.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.42 These Plans include a range of safety-related and asset management interventions, as addressed in the Strategic Road Safety Plan and the Road Asset Management Plan.

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Current Status of Project

A.43 Some of the measures required on these routes have been identified in the relevant Route Action Plans and ongoing route management. Some of these measures have already been implemented or are currently committed — others are awaiting approval and / or programming. Improving safety on these routes is likely to be met with a positive public response.

Indicative Costs

A.44 The total estimated cost of full implementation of this intervention is in the range £100-£250 million. However, some elements of this intervention are already committed, so the additional cost over current commitments will be lower than this.

Deliverability

A.45 The deliverability of this intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. Most of the measures have already been developed to a high level of readiness, and can be implemented within the short term. There are no major technical issues anticipated from this intervention, however design would have to account for conditions along the corridor such as terrain. Any visual impact due to speed enforcement measures would also have to be recognised.

6 — Further Electrification of the Strategic Rail Network

Intervention description

A.46 This intervention supports the ‘NPF2’ and ‘Scotland’s Railways’ to work towards an electrified rail network across the strategic routes in Scotland. It also contributes to a number of objectives relating to emissions and rail operations.

A.47 Rail electrification can contribute to emissions reduction by allowing train power to come from more environmentally friendly sources. This has not been assumed in the environmental assessment of the STPR, but none the less, offers potential benefits over the longer period. There are operational benefits compared with diesel powered trains both in terms of reduced journey times and operating costs. It also gives the opportunity for interoperability and more efficient use of rolling stock, particularly in the West of Scotland where running through some stations is restricted to electric rolling stock.

A.48 It is envisaged that electrification would be delivered on a phased basis. In the short term, this would include:

  • Phase 1 - Committed improvements as part of the Edinburgh to Glasgow improvements, comprising Edinburgh to Glasgow via Falkirk route, Diversion Routes 1 (Haymarket) and 2 (Falkirk Grahamston), and electrification on the route via Cumbernauld and to Dunblane / Alloa; and
  • Phase 2 - Electrification of the remaining routes in the Central Belt (Shotts, Whifflet, Paisley Canal, Glasgow North Suburban, East Kilbride and Kilmarnock).

A.49 In the longer term, extending into the period beyond STPR, this would include:

  • Phase 3 - Electrification of routes between Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee including the Fife Circle;
  • Phase 4 - Electrification from Dunblane to Aberdeen; and
  • Phase 5 — Electrification from Perth to Inverness.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.50 This intervention supports the Key Strategic Outcome to reduce emissions in pursuit of a Greener Scotland by providing cleaner, more efficient traction for rail services. There are a number of areas where objectives to reduce emissions would be supported by this intervention.

A.51 Currently 23 per cent of the Scottish rail network is electrified and this intervention would see the expansion of this over the greater part of the network. Electrified services would reduce energy consumption by 15 per cent for inter-urban and 20 per cent for stopping services.

A.52 This intervention would also allow greater flexibility of operation for services across the network, giving opportunities for new routes and through services. Electrification would support other rail interventions as part of an overall strategy for ‘step-change’ performance across parts of the system, particularly in Fife.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.53 The electrification of routes is likely to be linked to other elements of route modernisation, for example, the upgrading of signalling systems. A strategy of electrification has been highlighted in the National Transport Strategy (‘Scotland’s Railways’ / Freight Action Plan), The Scottish Rail Planning Assessment32, and the Network Rail Scottish Route Utilisation Strategy33.

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Current Status of Project

A.54 Network electrification is included in the Scottish Ministers’ High Level Output Statement34 for rail services (Summer 2007) as a ‘Tier 3’ intervention. Electrification of the Edinburgh to Glasgow route and associated connecting links was included in a Ministerial Statement on 27 Sep 2007. The electrification of the route between Glasgow and Edinburgh has been planned to Guide to Railway Investment Programme level 1. No other interventions have been developed at this stage. The intervention to electrify Scotland’s rail network has been in the public domain for some time now through Scotland’s Railways. It is generally accepted that this intervention would provide a number of positive benefits to the general public in terms of faster journey times and a reduction in emissions.

Indicative Costs

A.55 There are significant costs associated with implementing electrification. As well as the overhead cabling system, modifications to structures such as bridges and tunnels are often required to accommodate the increased clearance required.

A.56 The estimated costs of the proposed phased electrification plan are expected to be in the range £250m to £500m for each of the five phases.

Deliverability

A.57 The technologies for electrification already exist, and there are no major technical barriers to implementation. There would be an impact on the operation of existing rail services during the electrification of these routes. While some of the work could be carried out during normal maintenance possessions and during the night, it is likely that there will be some significant work required which would require longer closures. These could be mitigated through diverting over other routes where possible, but there could still be some disruption for existing rail users.

7 — Reconfiguration of the National Rail Timetable

Intervention description

A.58 Several objectives have been identified to reduce journey times by public transport, particularly between Aberdeen/Inverness and the Central Belt. At present, the Scottish Rail Network has no significant service hierarchy, with many services performing multiple roles in linking cities and intermediate stops, resulting in some cases of uncompetitive journey times.

A.59 This intervention would address these issues by re-casting the rail service timetable to provide fast, limited-stop trains which would serve longer distance journeys between the cities and replace some of the existing semi-fast services. Intermediate destinations would be catered for by stopping services. This is in line with the purpose of the rail network as defined in Scotland’s Railways. It is likely that this intervention would be undertaken on a phased basis, in conjunction with other interventions, particularly any programme of network-wide minor improvements.

A.60 There would, of course, be a requirement to ensure that an adequate number of semi-fast or stopping services remained in place for the intermediate locations. These may be supplemented by additional local bus services. This intervention is predicted on the basis of no requirement for new infrastructure or rolling stock.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.61 This intervention supports the objective to reduce inter-urban journey times on public transport by reducing journey times between Aberdeen/Inverness and the Central Belt by up to 20 minutes. Forecasts show a relatively small overall increase in rail passengers, however, the majority of this increase is related to a transfer from longer distance car traffic, resulting in reduced emissions from road based vehicles. While the benefits in terms of growth in passenger-kilometres are relatively modest, there are significant benefits to those already using the services through a reduction in journey time, for example a reduction of around 20 minutes to journeys between Aberdeen/Inverness and the Central Belt.

A.62 The costs of providing this intervention are low with the largest benefits accruing to longer distance travellers. However, there could be an adverse impact on shorter distance trips that currently use main line services, although these could be addressed through the provision of local bus services.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.63 Although this intervention is itself assumed not to require any additional rolling stock or infrastructure, there are clear synergies and interaction with other proposed interventions involving targeted enhancements which tend to build on this strategy. These other proposals allow for additional service frequency as well as the faster services proposed here, but at the cost of additional rolling stock and infrastructure works. Examples include the proposals to introduce additional services between the main centres on a number of routes as well as proposals to enhance cross-city and suburban train services.

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Current Status of Project

A.64 The timetable recast is in the early stages of feasibility planning. It is expected that this intervention would be supported; however any decrease in the level of service at any station could face some local opposition.

Indicative Costs

A.65 It is possible that some minor infrastructure enhancements may be required to enable the mix of fast and stopping services to operate over existing routes and to maintain operational performance standards. However, the estimated overall cost for this intervention is relatively low (less than £10m).

Deliverability

A.66 The delivery of changes to the inter-city timetable is likely to require a significant re-cast of the timetable for the entire Scottish rail network. This may be best delivered as part of the specification for the next rail franchise when it is renewed in 2014, to allow for a competitive approach to the delivery of a compliant, deliverable and cost effective operation. There would not be any significant technical constraints for the delivery of this intervention, although any changes to the timetable would have to be made within the current limitations within the rail network.

8 — (Strategic) Park-&-Ride / Park-&-Choose Strategy

Intervention description

A.67 This intervention supports the objectives to make public transport more competitive against the car. Located on major commuting routes, these sites would also assist in maintaining and enhancing the labour catchment areas in the city regions and reducing emissions. It would deliver a series of strategic Park-&-Ride / Park-&-Choose sites using common branding / marketing across Scotland. The sites would be served by either rail services or express bus links to and from the city centres and areas of economic activity, including appropriate bus priority measures at congested locations. These would interface with existing urban bus priority systems. Proposed sites for this strategy include creation of new facilities:

  • Serving Aberdeen: Dyce (A96) and Charleston;
  • Serving Dundee: Invergowrie, Forfar Road, A92 and Forgan;
  • Serving Edinburgh: Halbeath, Lothianburn , Pitreavie, Linlithgow and Tranent;
  • Serving Glasgow: Bargeddie (M8), St James (M8), Glasgow Southern Orbital (M77), Fullarton (M74), Robroyston (M80) and outside Ayr (M77);
  • At Bannockburn, serving Edinburgh, Glasgow and Stirling; and
  • A new station at Dalcross with Park-&-Ride facilities and interchange facilities with Inverness Airport.

A.68 In addition, this could incorporate expansion and complementary branding at existing sites at Bridge of Don, Hermiston, Ingliston and Todhill (Sheriffhall), with increased frequency for the current bus services from these sites.

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Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.69 This intervention would help to keep the city centres moving by reducing road congestion in the peak periods. It would also assist in maintaining the labour catchment, and reducing emissions. In the case of Edinburgh where this is a key objective the proposed measures would increase the number of people able to access areas of economic activity, particularly central Edinburgh. It is a similar picture for Glasgow where sites are proposed on all major radial roads.

A.70 This intervention could be taken forward in conjunction with other interventions aimed at providing priority vehicle lanes on sections of the strategic road network (i.e. Using Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) on Parts of the Road Network to Enhance Capacity and Operations).

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Links to Other Strategies

A.71 This strategy could be taken forward in conjunction with interventions aimed at providing priority vehicle lanes on sections of the strategic road network. In particular, there are links between this intervention and the proposed Forth Replacement Crossing.

A.72 The Scottish Government has published a National Framework document for Park and Ride for buses. The aim of this Framework is to assist Authorities and bus operators on approaches to the development of Park & Ride facilities.

Current Status of Project

A.73 Several Regional Transport Partnerships are bringing forward strategies for Park and Ride facilities and services. The Scottish Government is liaising where appropriate and will continue to do so as part of the development of relevant proposals. Most measures envisaged as part of the intervention have not been presented to the public. However, in general the measures are expected to be supported in principle as they would improve public transport provision, encourage mode shift and reduce congestion along busy commuter routes.

Indicative Costs

A.74 The total cost of this intervention is estimated to be in the range of £50 - £100 million.

Deliverability

A.75 Deliverability of the bus priority measures will depend on the ability to develop appropriate interventions which do not restrict the available road capacity for other traffic to an unacceptable extent. It will also be important to define Park-&-Ride interventions which, once implemented, are self-financing and do not need ongoing subsidy for their operating costs. The intervention is considered to be operationally feasible. Patronage levels would require to be sustained in order to operate the intervention over its projected life.

9 — Using Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) on Parts of the Road Network to Enhance Road Capacity and Operations

Intervention description

A.76 This intervention supports the objectives of improving journey time reliability and journey times for prioritised users. It would involve the introduction of enhanced Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), principally Active Traffic Management (ATM), on the motorway and trunk road network in Central Scotland:

  • M8;
  • M90 and A90 approaching Edinburgh;
  • A720 around Edinburgh; and
  • M74, M77 and M80 approaching Glasgow.

A.77 Phase 1 would consist of variable speed limits, variable message signs, ramp metering at key junctions and average speed enforcement measures as appropriate. Phase 2 would consist of additional functionality through further provision of ramp metering and hard shoulder running within the existing road space. Phase 3 would consist of improved functionality such as targeted use of the hard shoulder as an additional ‘managed lane’ for priority vehicles — e.g. High-Occupancy Vehicles (HOVs), buses and, Heavy Goods Vehicles. In some cases, road widening could be used to generate an additional lane for this purpose.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.78 The implementation of an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), based on an expansion of the existing capabilities of the Traffic Scotland system, would have significant benefits for the movement of people and goods. This would contribute to objectives on a number of corridors that link into the urban networks of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in particular would contribute to the objective to improve the operation of the urban Glasgow motorway network.

A.79 This system would also be able to support the operation of the strategic Park-&-Ride / Park-&-Choose intervention by providing opportunities to use the hard shoulder on approach to the urban networks for priority vehicles.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.80 ATM schemes would link to both the Strategic Road Safety Plan and the Road Asset Management Plan. Managed lanes for Heavy Goods Vehicle use link to the Freight Action Plan.

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Current Status of Project

A.81 The technology to implement Active Traffic Management (ATM) has been tested and proven elsewhere in the UK, and some parts of the Scottish network have already had significant investment in ITS measures. A preliminary design for the M90 in Fife has been carried out by Fife Council (supported by SEStran), and has been considered in the Forth Replacement Crossing Study. This is an important intervention to the economies of Glasgow, Edinburgh and the Central Belt, with significant public interest at both local and regional levels. Previous experience in implementing these measures and the subsequent improvements show that they are well received.

Indicative Costs

A.82 The M42 pilot scheme cost approximately £5.6 million per kilometre for a full scheme on an existing 3-lane motorway. Based on this, estimated costs for the routes suggested here are in the range £250m - £500m for the Phase 1 schemes, a further £100m - £250m for the Phase 2 schemes and £100m - £250m for Phase 3.

Deliverability

A.83 ATM is deliverable by Transport Scotland on the road network, and the required technology and resources are available. Detailed feasibility analysis will be required to assess the deliverability and effectiveness of each phase of the intervention. This intervention would have moderate environmental benefits by minimising congestion and stationary traffic and safety benefits by reducing the potential for collisions.

A.84 It would be necessary to provide additional control facilities/environment to monitor the network and provide an appropriate level of resilience while supporting an efficient response to incidents i.e. closure of hard shoulder in event of accident, breakdown etc. Monitoring of an actively managed hard shoulder would require post intervention monitoring to assess the effect on emergency services etc.

10 — Integrated Ticketing

Intervention description

A.85 This intervention involves the development of a national, integrated ticketing system for all modes of public transport and would support the objectives to promote seamless travel, improve the competitiveness of public transport and improve overall perception of public transport. Integrated ticketing is only one aspect of wider integration of transport, but its role in achieving seamless travel is vitally important. It is also important that any ticketing system adopted has a strong legacy value in terms of its ability to be sustained and evolve through time. There may be early opportunities to support the Commonwealth Games in 2014 by integrated ticketing and any system developed to support the games should be considered in terms of the points made above.

A.86 It is likely that the system would be delivered through Smartcard technology, similar to schemes operating in London and other European cities, but probably using the Integrated Transport Smartcard Organisation standard (ITSO). The card would allow interoperability across different public transport services over all of Scotland, and would provide a robust, secure system for revenue allocation to operators.

A.87 Such a system would require investment in fixed validation equipment at terminals and on buses/trams, sales facilities and Smartcards, and back office systems to undertake revenue allocation and provide management information. Further detailed consideration will be required to determine the type of product used.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.88 Integrated ticketing is not an end in itself but a means of achieving the wider policy objectives of the Scottish Government.

A.89 This intervention would provide greater integration and use of public transport as a real alternative to the car, in line with Scottish Government Key Strategic Outcomes. This intervention also offers the potential to reduce boarding times on bus services, since there would be a reduced requirement for drivers to sell tickets. Evidence from the London scheme currently suggests that upwards of 80 per cent of bus journeys in London are now made using a Smartcard; this may be largely due to significant cost savings to the users of the card.

A.90 From an environmental stand point this intervention is expected to have a small positive impact. However, taken together with other proposed interventions there is the potential to reduce the overall level of emissions by encouraging car drivers to use public transport.

A.91 This intervention could be taken forward in conjunction with those addressing service enhancements and the provision of Strategic Park-&- Ride / Park-&-Choose facilities.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.92 Integrated ticketing35 has been highlighted in a number of recent strategy documents:

  • The Scottish Government Manifesto expresses commitment to bringing together Scotland’s transport stakeholders to take forward measures to ensure greater integration of the public transport network and to putting forward for consideration development of an integrated paycard;
  • The National Transport Strategy sets out the importance of integrated ticketing;
  • The consultation document ‘Integrated Ticketing; A Strategy for Scotland’ was published in May 2008; and
  • The Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) documents also take forward some of these ideas for integrated ticketing in the context of specific requirements for each of the regions — particularly in the context of promoting bus travel.

Current Status of Project

A.93 The Scottish Government is currently consulting on their Integrated Ticketing Strategy for Scotland. The emerging strategy will bring together some of the key aims for public transport integration so that these can be taken forward into an implementation strategy jointly with transport operators, local authorities and Regional Transport Partnerships.

A.94 As part of the Concessionary Travel Scheme, Smartcard-enabled ticket machines are being fitted to all buses across Scotland. These machines are all capable of issuing and accepting both lightweight and long-lasting Smartcard tickets – and present exciting new opportunities to utilise Smartcards for ticketing products for fare-paying passengers. This infrastructure is intended to be in place on buses across Scotland by the end of 2009.

Indicative Costs

A.95 It is likely that an initial implementation of Smartcard ticketing technologies would cost in the range of £50m - £100m, based on the emerging experience of franchised rail operators who are currently undertaking their own implementations.

Deliverability

A.96 Implementation of the intervention will require the co-operation of all transport operators who participate in the intervention, both from a commercial perspective, and in adjusting their own internal business processes to handle the new system. As the franchising authority for Scotland’s rail services, Transport Scotland would be in a position to specify the technology as a franchise output. In the case of unregulated private bus service providers, there will be a need to secure their input and co-operation for participation in the intervention.

11 —Targeted Programme of Measures to improve Links to the Loch Ryan Port Facilities from the Trans European Network

Intervention description

A.97 This intervention supports the objective to have efficient and effective linkage to the port facilities at Loch Ryan, in particular improving the linkage of the Trans-European Network. This intervention would include measures such as:

  • Physical works aimed at providing safer overtaking opportunities such as 2+1 sections, climbing lanes and overtaking lay-bys and improvements to the operation of junctions around Dumfries;
  • Improvements to the strategic access around Stranraer (A751); and
  • Driver Information System.

A.98 It is envisaged that individual elements would be delivered in a targeted programme to improve journey time reliability for travel to the port facilities at Loch Ryan.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.99 The physical aspects of this intervention would improve journey time reliability, by addressing additional constraints along the route. This would result in efficiency gains for freight traffic travelling to and from the Loch Ryan ports.

A.100 In addition the physical aspects would be complemented by the introduction of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) on the A75, to provide driver information; which would provide a significant contribution towards the objective of efficient and effective links to the ports.

A.101 The programme of works would also contribute towards the need to maintaining and safely operate the network. Reductions in accident numbers would be expected at the improved locations, with up to 50 per cent reduction in certain sections. Severity rates are likely to be reduced by new 2+1 and re-aligned sections.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.102 This intervention includes a range of safety-related and asset management interventions, as addressed in the Strategic Road Safety Plan and the Road Asset Management Plan.

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Current Status of Project

A.103 Transport Scotland has invested in widening the A75 at a number of sections along the length of the trunk road to provide safe overtaking opportunities. This intervention provides further enhancements to the A75 and ensures the continuation of localised improvements to this carriageway to improve safety along the route.

Indicative Costs

A.104 The total estimated cost of this route improvement is in the range £10-£50 million.

Deliverability

A.105 These minor interventions can be developed and implemented within the short-medium term as required. Due to the rural nature of much of the corridor, design work would have to take account of the local terrain in order to minimise disruption to the port facilities which provide important tourist and freight links between Northern Ireland and Scotland.

12 — Enhancing Rail System Capacity through Targeted Improvements

Intervention description

A.106 This intervention is over and above the day-to-day maintenance of the rail network which is the responsibility of Network Rail and set out in Intervention 2.

A.107 There are parts of the railway network that are operating close to or at capacity during peak periods, with limited or no opportunity for additional services to be operated. Much of the existing signalling infrastructure is becoming less fit-for-purpose. This intervention would cover operational and relatively small scale infrastructure measures such as:

  • Replacement of Radio Electronic Token Block signalling in the Highland region;
  • Provision of additional signal blocks in heavily used parts of the network;
  • Replacement of two-aspect signals with three or four aspect signals in heavily used parts of the network;
  • Replacement of single lead junctions with double lead junctions as appropriate to improve efficiency; and
  • Replacement of low speed junctions and crossovers as appropriate to improve efficiency.

A.108 This intervention provides upgrades for rail signalling, as well as track and junction layouts to reduce headways and allow more trains to use the network.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.109 This intervention would have the effect of improving operational performance and would also lead to reduced journey times where train times are currently constrained by limited capacity and a mix of train speeds. These benefits by themselves would encourage some modal shift from car to rail, hence reducing traffic emissions. In many areas of Scotland, additional rail services could contribute towards objectives where localised rail constraints have been identified. This intervention would provide a strategy to systematically address these constraints.

A.110 The main benefits of this intervention include:

  • Reducing conflict between services;
  • Improving efficiency;
  • Reducing journey time variability;
  • Improving reliability and resilience; and
  • Providing room for growth.

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Links to Other Strategies

A.111 The requirement for strategic rail infrastructure capacity enhancements is highlighted in the National Transport Strategy (Scotland’s Railways and Freight Action Plan) as well as the Scottish Planning Assessment and Route Utilisation Strategy. The significance of providing for rail freight access to ports is highlighted in the second National Planning Framework (NPF2).

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Current Status of Project

A.112 Some parts of this intervention have been developed as part of proposals in Network Rail’s Scottish Route Utilisation Strategy34, and national schemes to replace life-expired signalling and trackside equipment. It is expected that improvement schemes as part of this intervention will be developed to deliver the required route capacity improvements.

Indicative Costs

A.113 This intervention is estimated to cost in the region of £100m - £250m.

Deliverability

A.114 This intervention will be deliverable by Transport Scotland in partnership with Network Rail in their role as owner and operator of the rail infrastructure. Implementing this intervention would require work to take place on the existing rail network. This work would have to be carried out during possessions, where parts of the railway network would be closed, impacting on passenger journeys. However, much of this would could coincide with general maintenance of the network and take place during periods of low demand.

13 — Rail Enhancements in the East of Scotland

Intervention description

A.115 This intervention includes an increase in service frequency on rail services across the east of Scotland.

A.116 This intervention would include services such as:

  • West Calder to Haymarket (in addition to the committed service improvements as part of Intervention 15, Edinburgh to Glasgow Rail Improvements Programme)
  • Edinburgh to Newcraighall (two trains per hour as an extension to existing Dunblane services and two trains per hour to Glasgow and the west of Scotland via the committed Airdrie to Bathgate line. This would replace the existing two trains per hour from Newcraighall to Dunblane and from Bathgate to Newcraighall)
  • Edinburgh to Dunbar (as an extension of services from Glasgow and the west of Scotland via the committed Airdrie to Bathgate line)
  • Edinburgh to Cowdenbeath semi-fast (as an extension of services from Tweedbank via the committed Borders Rail Link)
  • Haymarket to Kirkcaldy semi-fast (additional service on top of existing services)

A.117 This intervention would include additional rolling stock and facilities to support and maintain these services.

A.118 There is limited capacity available at Waverley Station and therefore capacity improvements would be required or alternatively, more efficient use of Waverley would have to be developed (which may include terminating some trains at Haymarket north platform or an equivalent on the south side provided as part of the committed Edinburgh to Glasgow improvements).

A.119 This intervention would include remodelling of various parts of the network to enhance capacity for these services, such as Portobello Junction to Newcraighall and Dunbar station. Additional capacity enhancements such as resignalling and loops would also be included where necessary.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.120 This intervention would contribute towards the objectives for Edinburgh and the corridors serving the city, particularly in providing access to areas of economic activity. The increased provision would increase the labour market catchment that can commute into Edinburgh within 60-minutes by 5-10 per cent.

A.121 This intervention would provide additional rail capacity on some of the busiest rail lines in Scotland, resulting in a transfer of up to 5 per cent modal shift from car to rail. The reduction in car journeys could positively contribute towards improved air quality within air quality management areas.

A.122 This intervention is forecast to capture trips from car travel, with an increase of over 1100 new rail passengers during the peak hour approximately half of whom transfer from car.

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Links to other strategies

A.123 Improvements to rail services and station facilities on these routes have been raised in the SEStran Regional Transport Strategy, the Scottish Strategic Rail Study36 and the Tay Estuary Rail Study37.

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Current status of project

A.124 A Ministerial Statement made on 27th Sept 2007 proposed improvements on the route between Edinburgh and Fife in order to provide improved rail connections to Edinburgh Airport. This intervention is expected to be supported with no significant objections raised.

Possible costs

A.125 The total anticipated cost of this intervention is estimated to be in the range of £250m - £500m.

Deliverability

A.126 The proposed frequency enhancements will require careful timetabling in order to fit as many trains as possible through Waverley station, making full use of the capacity available. This intervention would require significant engineering works on various parts of the rail network. However, increased service frequencies across the east of Scotland would bring capacity enhancement and additional seating.

14 — Forth Replacement Crossing

Intervention description

A.127 The Forth Replacement Crossing will comprise a cable stayed bridge across the River Forth west of the existing Forth Road Bridge with associated connecting roads and future proofed multi-modal capability.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.128 The Forth Replacement Crossing and its networks will ensure that a key river crossing is maintained. In doing so it will protect the economy of Fife, Edinburgh and beyond from disruption stemming from the uncertainty of the long term viability and operation of the Forth Road Bridge and concerns over the current operational characteristics of the surrounding road network.

A.129 The bridge and its connections will also offer the opportunity to develop bus, tram or light rail systems connecting Fife, Edinburgh and West Lothian, so encouraging the use of more sustainable modes of transport. They will also support the reduction in travel times and improve journey time reliability for cross Forth trips and improve connections to areas of economic activity including West Edinburgh, Grangemouth, south Fife and Dundee.

Links to Other Strategies

A.130 The Forth Replacement Crossing is identified as a key national development in the second National Planning Framework (NPF2) and is supported by the SEStran Regional Transport Strategy.

A.131 The Forth Replacement Crossing recognises its links to development plans for West Edinburgh and Edinburgh Airport, all of which are highlighted in NPF2 and more widely to the plans of SEStran, the City of Edinburgh Council, West Lothian Council and Fife Council. Meetings have taken place with each of these organisations.

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Current Status of Project

A.132 The Forth Replacement Crossing was a fast tracked component of the Strategic Transport Projects Review (STPR).

A.133 The Forth Replacement Crossing Study (FRCS) identified the main issues surrounding cross Forth Trips, and considered 65 options for meeting objectives identified to address these issues. The FRCS reported to Minister’s in December 2007, at which point a decision was made in principal to provide a multi-modal cable stayed bridge and connections to replace the existing Forth Road Bridge.

A.134 Work on the design development of the Project has been taken forward over the last year recognising the improving prognosis for the Forth Road Bridge. Whilst that structure will not be able to maintain the quality of secure connection required to reliably support the East of Scotland Economy, a clear future role as a public transport corridor has been identified. This has allowed changes to the requirements for the Forth Replacement Crossing and a Managed Crossing Strategy effectively utilising existing infrastructure has been developed. This will be taken forward for authorisation during 2009.

Indicative Costs

A.135 The Forth Replacement Crossing originally estimated to cost between £3.2 and £4.2 billion at 2016 outturn prices has now been redesigned and is expected to cost between £1.72 and £2.34 billion. This includes VAT, optimism bias and inflation from a 2006 base cost.

Deliverability

A.136 Design development of the Forth Replacement Crossing is ongoing. The primary factors affecting how soon the project can be delivered will be the resolution of statutory processes and the availability of funding to carry the intervention forward to completion.

15 — Edinburgh - Glasgow (Rail) Improvements Programme

Intervention description

A.137 This intervention was identified early in the STPR and, as with the Forth Replacement Crossing, has been brought forward in a study which considered improvements to the capacity, frequency and journey time of rail services between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

A.138 This intervention supports a number of objectives relating to access to jobs from the perspective of both employers and employees, emissions and public transport capacity on the corridor between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

A.139 A number of potential packages of infrastructure and service enhancements were examined. The Minister announced to Parliament in Autumn 2007 that the preferred strategy would be to provide:

  • An electrified railway between Edinburgh and Glasgow Queen Street (including diversion routes), the line via Cumbernauld and lines to Dunblane and Alloa;
  • A new station at Gogar to serve Edinburgh Airport (via tram) and a new curve at Dalmeny to allow Edinburgh to Glasgow services to access the new station;
  • Six trains per hour between Edinburgh and Queen Street with the fastest journey time of around 35 minutes and a mixture of stopping patterns to serve intermediate stations;
  • Access to Edinburgh Park station for Edinburgh to Glasgow services; and
  • Three trains per hour between Edinburgh and Glasgow Central (one stopping service and two semi-fast services) serving both the Shotts and Carstairs routes.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.140 This intervention would provide an increase in capacity between Edinburgh and Glasgow as well as reducing the journey time between the two cities. These combined would help maintain, and in some cases enhance, the labour market catchment area that can commute into the two cities within 60-minutes, counteracting the forecast decrease in labour market catchment caused by forecast increases in congestion and journey times on the road network. The improvements would encourage travellers to choose to travel by rail instead of private car. Electrification of the lines would also further help to reduce emissions within the corridor between Edinburgh and Glasgow. The intervention also provides a key linkage from the rail network to Edinburgh Airport, through the provision of a new station at Gogar and interchange with the tram.

A.141 The enhancement to services between Edinburgh and Glasgow via Shotts or Carstairs would improve public transport capacity between Edinburgh and Livingston / Glasgow. It would also improve connectivity and interchange opportunities (via Glasgow Central) between Edinburgh and Inverclyde / Ayrshire, further helping to maintain the labour market catchment area for the two cities, and encouraging rail use in place of private car.

A.142 The strategic business case for this proposal has been completed and shows it offers value for money.

Links to other strategies

A.143 The requirement for improved rail services between Edinburgh and Glasgow has been highlighted in the National Transport Strategy (Scotland’s Railways and Freight Action Plan) and in the Scottish Ministers High Level Output Specification. The intervention is also included in the Scottish Rail Planning Assessment and the Route Utilisation Strategy, as well as the SEStran Regional Transport Strategy 2008-2023.

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Current status of project

A.144 The preferred strategy was announced in a Ministerial Statement made on 27 September 2007.

Possible costs

A.145 The cost for this intervention has already been committed, but is estimated to be in the range £500m - £1bn.

Deliverability

A.146 It appears feasible to provide the necessary infrastructure although the need for land purchase will extend the delivery period and electrification will need detailed investigation as well as the impact of signalling changes. A number of component parts of this intervention are deliverable within the short to medium term horizon and the full intervention could potentially be delivered by 2016.

16 — A9 Upgrading from Dunblane to Inverness

Intervention description

A.147 The Scottish Government is committed to the dualling of the A9 between Dunblane and Inverness. This intervention considers the full dualling and wider improvement of the A9 between Dunblane and Inverness.

A.148 This intervention supports the objectives to promote journey time reductions between Inverness and the Central Belt, improve the operational effectiveness of the A9, reduce the severity of accidents and address driver frustration.

A.149 The first phase of this intervention would consist of :

  • Grade separation of all junctions on the A9 from (and including) Keir Roundabout to south of Broxden Roundabout;
  • A9 Dual Carriageway from Perth to Blair Atholl;
  • Grade separation of Broxden Roundabout and Inveralmond Roundabout at Perth; and
  • Implementation of climbing lanes, 2+1 sections and junction improvements between Blair Atholl and Inverness.

A.150 The subsequent phases of this intervention would consist of:

  • Dualling the A9 between Aviemore and Inverness; and
  • Dualling the A9 between Blair Atholl and Aviemore.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.151 Many of the accidents on the A9 between Dunblane and Perth have occurred at the at-grade junctions. These accidents are often serious or fatal and removal of these would significantly reduce severity rate on this route.

A.152 The grade separation of Keir, Broxden and Inveralmond Roundabouts would remove the congestion at these locations contributing to reduced journey times, improved journey time reliability and improved road safety.

A.153 The A9 between Perth and Blair Atholl is the most heavily trafficked section of the A9 north of Perth. Dualling this section would have the most significant impact on reducing journey times and improving journey time reliability. This would also contribute to a consistent carriageway standard along this section of the A9.

A.154 The introduction of overtaking lanes is also expected to improve safety since evidence elsewhere suggests that the introduction of overtaking lanes can result in a significant reduction in accidents, of up to 50 per cent, on single carriageway routes.

A.155 Dualling the A9 between Blair Atholl and Inverness would further reduce journey times and improve journey time reliability between Perth and Inverness, as well as provide a consistent carriageway standard along the whole of A9 between Perth and Inverness. This section is less trafficked than the rest of the A9 and is therefore considered in subsequent phases. Aviemore to Inverness is more heavily trafficked than Blair Atholl to Aviemore and would therefore take priority in future phases.

A.156 This intervention is expected to provide a significant contribution to the Scottish Government’s Purpose of increasing sustainable economic growth. In addition this will also contribute to the national objectives of promoting journey time reductions between the Central Belt and Inverness and the reduction in accident rates. The intervention also addresses the corridor specific objectives of improving the operational effectiveness of the A9 on approaches to Perth and addressing issues of driver frustration.

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Links to other strategies

A.157 This intervention links to the Strategic Road Safety Plan and to the Road Asset Management Plan. In particular, the specific intervention proposed here builds on the A9 Route Action Plan Perth to Inverness38, and on the A9 Route Improvement Strategy Study39.

Current status of project

A.158 The Scottish Government has made a long term commitment to dualling the A9 up to Inverness, although it has been recognised that a phased approach is likely. Planning for dualling the southern section is progressing but has not yet moved into a formal process. This is a high profile intervention, with significant public interest at both local and national levels.

Possible costs

A.159 The first phase of this intervention is expected to have a cost in the range £500m to £1bn (Dunblane to Perth £100m-£250m, Broxden and Inveralmond Junctions £50m-£100m, Partial Dualling and 2+1 sections £500m-£1bn) with the subsequent phase in the range £1.5bn to £3bn.

Deliverability

A.160 The environmental impacts this intervention has on several biodiversity sites and designated landscapes have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Appropriate Assessment.

A.161 Careful mitigation of the environmental impacts of this intervention will be required. The design will need to include measures to ensure construction limits impact on these sites. Significant engineering works would also be required at Keir and Broxden junctions, and at Inveralmond the urban nature of the surroundings could constrain design solutions.

17 — Rail Enhancements on the Highland Main line between Perth and Inverness

Intervention description

A.162 This intervention supports objectives to reduce journey time and increase travel opportunities between Inverness and Perth, more effectively linking Inverness to the Central Belt.

A.163 Improvements to the Highland Main Line are proposed, providing:

  • An increase in service frequency (minimum of hourly between Inverness and Perth with additional peak express services); and
  • A reduction in journey times of approximately 35 minutes, resulting in Edinburgh to Inverness journeys of under three hours, with similar reductions for services to Glasgow.

A.164 Journey time reductions to benefit passenger services would be delivered through, timetable developments, minor infrastructure enhancements such as tail light cameras, line speed improvements, additional loops, dynamic loops or lengthening of double track sections, signalling improvements and more powerful traction. It is envisaged that this could be delivered in two phases. Phase 1 will seek to maximise service frequency and journey times on existing infrastructure. Phase 2 would comprise infrastructure enhancements to allow even faster services to operate.

A.165 Additional freight improvements: The passenger enhancements could be optimised to also benefit freight operations. It is envisaged that this would include:

  • Provision of bi-directional signalling to reduce the impact of engineering works on the route (permitting the route to remain open for freight throughout the day and week);
  • Increased length of freight loops (allowing longer freight trains); and
  • Removal of speed limits below 75 mph Permanent Speed Reductions (PSRs) for freight trains.

A.166 Included within this intervention is the capability to operate low floor wagons that are currently becoming available for use on the network. These would allow standard containers to be carried on existing infrastructure with minimal physical works, such as targeted gauge enhancements at appropriate structures.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.167 This intervention would provide journey time improvements between Inverness and Perth and onwards to the Central Belt, contributing to objectives relating to these issues. Increasing the frequency of services would provide further benefits through additional opportunities to travel. The reduction in journey time of around 20 per cent is significant and would make the rail service more competitive with the current car journey.

A.168 The freight improvements would make it considerably more attractive for freight hauliers to move containers and other goods by rail, by reducing journey times.

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Links to other strategies

A.169 Service improvements on this corridor have been highlighted in the Scottish Ministers’ High Level Output Specification and the Highland "Room for Growth" Study40, and interface with the Scottish Rail Planning Assessment and the Network Rail Route Utilisation Strategy for Scotland. This intervention would build on Intervention 7 (Reconfiguration of the National Rail Timetable).

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Current status of project

A.170 As a ‘Tier 3’ intervention in the Scottish Ministers’ High Level Output Specification, Network Rail have been asked to produce a credible and affordable delivery plan to progress development of this intervention, for potential implementation during Control Period 4 (2009-2014). There has been no specific detailed consultation on this intervention. However a commitment to Phase 1 was made in a Scottish Government statement on the 5th of August 2008.

Possible costs

A.171 No detailed cost estimates have been made for this proposal, but a suggested range of £200 million to £450 million has been identified.

Deliverability

A.172 The physical improvements required to support this intervention would need to be carefully managed in order to minimise the potential adverse impact on the environment.

A.173 The environmental impacts this intervention has on designated biodiversity and landscape sites have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

A.174 This intervention should gain support in terms of the environmental benefits gained through capturing journeys currently made by cars and goods vehicles.

18 — Upgrade A96 to Dual Carriageway between Inverness and Nairn

Intervention description

A.175 This intervention supports the objectives to reduce the accident rate and severity rate on this route and improve connectivity between Inverness and communities to the east. It would include providing a new dual carriageway on the A96 corridor between Inverness and Nairn, giving improved access to Inverness Airport and the future growth areas in the A96 corridor.

A.176 A new link connecting the A96 and the A9 (south of Inverness) would provide relief for Raigmore Interchange.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.177 Upgrading the A96 to dual carriageway between Inverness and Nairn is expected to reduce accident rates (by around 40 per cent) by providing a higher standard of road. It would also reduce journey times along this section of the corridor, improving connectivity between Inverness and communities to the east (including the planned developments in this corridor at Tornagrain), and helping to increase the labour catchment area for Inverness. Improvements would also be felt on longer distance road journeys between Aberdeen and Inverness.

A.178 This intervention would have an adverse environmental impact largely due to construction impacts on the surrounding natural and historic features.

A.179 The link between the A9 and the A96 would further reduce congestion by allowing traffic between the A9 and A96 to avoid local traffic congestion at Raigmore Interchange. These benefits are reflected in the economic analysis, which suggests that the intervention offers value for money.

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Links to other strategies

A.180 The intervention would link to various other A96 improvements identified in the Route Action Plan (aimed at reducing accident severity), and builds on the Strategic Road Safety Plan and Road Asset Management Plan. Further enhancements to this route may also be a possibility as part of the targeted road congestion interventions described below.

A.181 This intervention would also assist in facilitating the growth on the A96 as identified in the A96 Masterplan proposals. Improvements on this corridor were highlighted in the Hitrans Regional Transport Partnership (RTP) and Horizontal themes, the Inverness Airport Surface Access Strategy, and in the Aberdeen to Inverness Transport Corridor Study41.

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Current status of project

A.182 This is an important intervention to the economy of Inverness and the surrounding area, with significant public interest at both local and regional levels.

A.183 The dualling of the A96 from Inverness to Nairn is being discussed with Highland Council and other stakeholders as part of the wider consideration of the A96 Masterplan. This consideration also includes the rail proposals set out in STPR intervention 19 and the additional roads proposals set out in STPR intervention 22.

Possible costs

A.184 The total costs for both phases of this intervention are estimated to be in the range £250m - £500m.

Deliverability

A.185 It is anticipated that there are unlikely to be any technical issues with constructing this intervention.

A.186 The environmental impacts this intervention has on the surrounding natural and historical features have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

19 — Rail Service Enhancements between Aberdeen and Inverness

Intervention description

A.187 This intervention supports the objectives to reduce journey time and increase opportunities to travel, particularly by public transport, between Aberdeen and Inverness. The improvements to the railway between Aberdeen and Inverness would allow:

  • An increase in service frequency (minimum of hourly service over the full route);
  • A reduction in journey time by about 20 minutes between Aberdeen and Inverness;
  • Extra rail services between Nairn and Inverness to provide an overall two trains per hour over this section; and
  • A new station at Dalcross with Park-&-Ride facilities and interchange facilities with Inverness Airport.

A.188 Phase 1 would involve the introduction of new loops in the area and line speed improvements. Phase 2 would involve more comprehensive improvements to line speed, journey times and the provision of some dual tracking on approaches to Inverness and Aberdeen. Development of this intervention will also give consideration to the option of a station at Kintore.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.189 This intervention would reduce journey times between Aberdeen and Inverness and improve connectivity between the cities and the intermediate communities. It would also increase opportunities to travel by providing a more frequent service at regular intervals.

A.190 At the Inverness end of the route, the intervention would improve connectivity by public transport between Inverness City Centre and the growth area to the east including Inverness Airport and the A96 corridor.

A.191 Within Aberdeen this intervention would improve access to the Dyce area and, if combined with improvements to the connections between Aberdeen and the Central Belt (STPR Intervention 23), would also provide greater opportunity for cross city travel by rail.

A.192 The journey time savings of approximately 20 minutes are significant and this, coupled with an increased frequency, would make rail travel a genuine alternative to car travel. There will also be benefits from emissions reduction resulting from the ability to capture a higher share of inter-city travel.

A.193 The cost of this intervention is driven by the need to provide double track on the approach to Aberdeen. However, the improvements to journey time of around 20 per cent would be significant both for existing users and for those transferring from car and it is therefore considered to offer value-for-money.

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Links to other strategies

A.194 Service improvements on this corridor have been highlighted in the Scottish Ministers High Level Output Specification and in the Aberdeen to Inverness Transport Corridor Study.

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Current status of project

A.195 As a ‘Tier 3’ intervention in the Scottish Ministers’ High Level Output Specification, Network Rail have been asked to produce a credible and affordable delivery plan to progress development of this intervention, for potential implementation during Control Period 4 (2009-2014). There has been no specific detailed consultation on this individual intervention. However it is expected that any measure which promotes modal shift to more sustainable transport would achieve public support.

Possible costs

A.196 The costs for this intervention are driven by the need to provide double track on approach to Aberdeen. Total cost is estimated to be in the range £250m - £500m.

Deliverability

A.197 The deliverability of this intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. The construction of new loops and double track sections may require upgrading of structures and a Transport & Works Act depending on the location of any works and whether they are built within the existing railway alignment. It is likely that this work will require new signalling systems designed to modern standards. These would have to interface with existing systems and there is a risk on the basis of system compatibility. Ground conditions may be a risk depending on the site of the proposed station and where the improvements are made.

A.198 The work required to add new loops and additional tracks would require the closure of the line when connecting them to the existing rail network. This would cause disruption to passengers that use the line, although this work may be done during routine maintenance possessions. There is a risk that running extra services will have an impact on other parts of the network, such as at Inverness and Aberdeen stations.

20 — Grangemouth Road and Rail Access Upgrades

Intervention description

A.199 This intervention supports the objective to improve access to Grangemouth port and the freight hub, by improving access for both road and rail freight. Improved road access from Grangemouth onto the motorway network would be provided through upgrades to Junctions 5 or 6 on the M9, possibly developing new slip roads, for instance. The A801 would be upgraded between Grangemouth and the M8 (including carriageway improvements and a new viaduct) to serve developing industrial and distribution facilities along the M8 corridor.

A.200 Improved rail access would be provided through capacity enhancements at and around Grangemouth Junction, to allow more trains to access the freight facilities at Grangemouth. These would build on the committed improvements to the Edinburgh — Glasgow route, and would include electrification between Coatbridge and Grangemouth as well as increased loading gauge to allow larger containers to be carried. In addition, track modifications are proposed to provide improved access from the west and offer the possibility of improved access or services running on east coast routes.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.201 Improving the direct link from Grangemouth to the developing industrial and distribution facilities along the M8 via the upgraded A801 would make it more suitable for the role that it is currently performing and allow for increased economic growth on this corridor.

A.202 In addition it would offer significant journey time improvements and a reduction in the accident rate of around a third on the A801. Provision of this high quality route would also offer the opportunity for existing Heavy Goods Vehicles which use the M8 and M9 to reduce their current journey times by a minimum of 20 minutes. This could bring some benefits for the strategic road network in the West Edinburgh area.

A.203 This intervention would deliver a small positive impact on the environment as a result of the removal of some Heavy Goods Vehicles from parts of Grangemouth and rail improvements that include electrification, both of which are envisaged to contribute to reduced emissions. This intervention would however impact on the designated environmental sites along the route and this would need to be considered further in the development of a proposed alignment of a new road crossing of the Avon Gorge.

A.204 The rail element would allow more freight trains to run into Grangemouth freight terminal without conflicting with passenger services, which in turn would improve journey time reliability. Electrification would allow freight trains to be operated from the West Coast Main Line by faster electric locomotives. Increasing the loading gauge would allow larger containers to be carried to and from Grangemouth. All of these improvements would also help make rail freight more attractive for hauliers.

A.205 The economic analysis of this intervention suggests that overall the intervention offers value for money.

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Links to other strategies

A.206 Rail enhancements would be associated with the proposed enhancements to Intervention 15 (Edinburgh to Glasgow Rail Improvements Programme). Requirements for improved access to Grangemouth have been highlighted in the SEStran Regional Transport Strategy (RTS), Falkirk Council development plans and the Network Rail RUS for Scotland.

Current status of project

A.207 Grangemouth Freight hub is designated as a National Development in the National Planning Framework (NPF2). The upgrades to Junctions 5 or 6 of the M9 and the rail improvements to Grangemouth would reduce flows, especially Heavy Goods Vehicles, through urban areas, however the construction and subsequent operation of the junctions may impact on surrounding residential properties. The A801 upgrade would generally be welcomed and has been promoted by Falkirk and West Lothian Councils.

Possible costs

A.208 The total cost of this package is estimated to be in the range of £100m-£250m.

Deliverability

A.209 This intervention is considered to be technically and operationally feasible. It could however impact on the designated environmental sites along the route and this would need to be considered further. The intervention may require modification of Junction 6 with the construction of slip roads from the motorway on three approaches. This may be difficult to construct due to the proximity of properties and local roads.

A.210 It is likely that current road users on the M9, the A801 and other adjacent roads such as the A706 and the A905 would be affected during construction. However following construction, it is unlikely that any factors would negatively affect the operation of the intervention during its projected life. The A801 is currently a non-trunk road and comes under the responsibility of the relevant local authorities. It is not clear if this would remain the case after any upgrade. Upgrades on the rail network may affect existing services during engineering possessions.

21 — Upgrade Edinburgh Haymarket Public Transport Interchange

Intervention description

A.211 This intervention would contribute significantly to a number of objectives for Edinburgh relating to improvements in public transport interchange, connections to the airport and enhanced rail capacity.

A.212 This intervention would consist of:

  • Improvements to platform level access; and
  • New at-grade concourse.

A.213 Further details of this intervention can be found in the Haymarket Interchange Feasibility Study — Final Report42 , with reference to Phase 1 intervention.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.214 This intervention would provide a significant contribution towards two of the objectives for Edinburgh, ‘to maintain the 60-minute commutable labour market area at the current level, with a particular focus on linking areas of economic activity’ and ‘to enhance public transport interchange opportunities, where feasible to do so’, by providing a ‘step-change’ in interchange facilities in Edinburgh. There is a forecast 50 per cent increase in rail demand between 2005 and 2022, as well as the growth in bus and tram passengers. By providing the opportunity for transfer between heavy rail, light rail and bus, opportunities for travel to areas in west Edinburgh, including the airport, would be greatly enhanced.

A.215 This intervention would complement measures to maximise the use of the station and reduce pressure on Waverley Station and the link between the two, such as the additional bay platform.

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Links to other strategies

A.216 Creation of an enhanced interchange at Haymarket would complement the land use changes in west Edinburgh and would also facilitate additional commercial development in the surrounding area. It would also build on the proposed Haymarket Station Capacity Project which involves initial capacity improvement works and the improved interchange with the tram and bus networks.

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Current status of project

A.217 The deliverability of this intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. The intervention is at an early stage of development. Consultations have been undertaken with key stakeholders, local residents and businesses. The results were incorporated into the preferred option for the existing intervention43. Any further developments for this intervention, which promotes modal shift, could be viewed favourably.

Possible costs

A.218 Costs for this scheme are estimated to be in the range £50m - £100m.

Deliverability

A.219 It is unlikely that any untried techniques would be required during implementation of this intervention, however during the design stage localised issues could arise which require increased technical capabilities to be addressed.

A.220 Given the proximity of the site to a busy rail line with continued operations being essential, and the relationship to the newly constructed tram route, issues related to constructability and phasing would be critical considerations to successful project delivery.

22 — Targeted Road Congestion / Environmental Relief Schemes

Intervention description

A.221 On a number of corridors throughout Scotland, objectives have been identified to reduce conflicts between strategic and local traffic. Reducing these conflicts can significantly contribute to road safety, journey time reliability, reducing emissions and reducing severance.

A.222 This intervention targets specific locations on the road network where improvements would address these issues and includes measures such as:

  • Upgrade of the A77 from single to dual carriageway around Ayr, grade separation of key junctions and enhancements south of Ayr, such as a bypass of Maybole (part 1);
  • Enhancements on the A737 such as a bypass around Dalry (part 2);
  • Junction improvements for the A720 Edinburgh City Bypass — such as at Sheriffhall Roundabout (part 3); and
  • Enhancements to the A96 such as a bypass at Nairn and a new Inveramsay Bridge (part 4).

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.223 The grade separations on the A77 between Whitletts Roundabout and Bankfield Roundabout, would remove the conflict of local and strategic traffic, as well as reducing journey times by approximately 10 minutes. Upgrading the A77 to the east of Ayr would also provide additional capacity for traffic that is likely to be generated as Ayr expands to the south east. These interventions would also improve access to the ports at Loch Ryan with consequential benefits for freight and passenger traffic.

A.224 Providing improvements on the A737 such as a bypass of Dalry would help to reduce the conflict between local and strategic traffic that occurs along this route, thus improving road safety and journey time reliability on the A737.

A.225 The A720 improvements would help to maintain the 60-minute commutable labour market area around Edinburgh, and would provide benefits for journeys to or between two of Edinburgh's areas of economic activity, West Edinburgh and the Shawfair development. Journey time reductions of approximately 5 minutes are forecast with this improvement for all elements.

A.226 Enhancements to the A96 such as a bypass around Nairn would reduce the conflict between local and strategic traffic and improve journey times and journey time reliability along the route.

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Links to other strategies

A.227 These interventions have been highlighted in the relevant Regional Transport Strategies. The A96 bypass interventions would build on Intervention 4 (Targeted Programme of Measures to Reduce Accident Severity in North and West Scotland) and add to the A96 enhancements proposed at the western end in Intervention 18 (Upgrade A96 to Dual Carriageway between Inverness and Nairn).

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Current status of project

A.228 Many of the improvements have been known to the public for a number of years and there would appear to be wider support for them, however the environmental impacts and detailed design of proposals could prompt negative public opinion.

Possible costs

A.229 The total cost of this intervention is estimated to be in the range £100m - £250m.

Deliverability

A.230 The deliverability of this intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. This intervention would use no new untried techniques although there would be some major infrastructure works needed in order to cross major roads and railway lines as well as rivers and burns, which all of the proposed bypasses would need to do. There are also a number of SSSIs, ancient woodlands and ancient monuments which have to be taken into account when designing and constructing the bypasses.

A.231 The environmental impacts this intervention has on cultural heritage and landscape have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Appropriate Assessment, however reductions in congestion are expected to contribute towards a decrease in emissions. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

A.232 Construction work may affect the environment of surrounding areas and may cause delays to traffic, however there would be no issues following the completion of the works. The responsibility for operational issues on the proposed measures in this intervention would remain with Transport Scotland and its maintenance contractors. Responsibility for the existing routes through the towns could pass to the local authority.

23 — Rail Service Enhancements between Aberdeen and the Central Belt

Intervention description

A.233 This intervention supports the objectives to improve public transport competitiveness between Aberdeen and the Central Belt and provide enhanced opportunities to move freight by rail. It would involve:

  • Recasting of the passenger timetable on the Aberdeen — Dundee — Edinburgh / Glasgow corridors to provide express and stopping services;
  • Providing one express train per hour to Glasgow (two hour fifteen minute journey time);
  • Providing one express train per hour to Edinburgh (two hour journey time); and
  • No stops at intermediate settlements for express services (except Dundee).

A.234 Phase 1 would include line speed improvements, additional loops to allow passing of freight trains, and upgraded signalling along the entire length of the line to reduce headway times. The intervention would also require more powerful rolling stock. Phase 2 would involve the removal of the single track at Usan, including a new bridge over Montrose Basin.

A.235 The passenger enhancements could be optimised to also benefit freight operations. It is envisaged that this would include:

  • Provision of bi-directional signalling along the route to reduce the impact of engineering works on the route (permitting the route to remain open for freight throughout the day and week);
  • Increased length of freight loops (allowing longer freight trains); and
  • Removal of speed limits that are below 75 mph for freight trains.

A.236 Included within this intervention is the capability to operate low floor wagons that are currently becoming available for use on the network. These would allow standard containers to be carried on existing infrastructure with minimal physical works, such as targeted gauge enhancements at appropriate structures.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.237 This intervention would help to reduce journey times between Aberdeen and the Central Belt by around 20 minutes, the majority of which would be delivered under Phase 1. This intervention would assist in allowing travellers to achieve an effective working day when travelling between Scotland's four largest cities. These improvements would lead to an increase in demand for rail travel, and a modal shift from private car use. The freight improvements would make it considerably more attractive for freight hauliers to move containers and other goods by rail, by reducing journey times.

A.238 The improvements required to facilitate the improved passenger services are relatively modest compared with the works required for freight. This gives the passenger service improvements a good performance in terms of value for money, with the freight improvements being more marginal. However, the potential benefit from this in terms of reduced emissions control would make the overall improvement worthwhile.

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Links to other strategies

A.239 Infrastructure links to improve journey times between the Central Belt and Aberdeen have been identified as one of the outputs in the Scottish Ministers’ High Level Output Specification.

Current status of project

A.240 As a ‘Tier 3’ intervention in the Scottish Ministers’ High Level Output Specification, Network Rail have been asked to produce a credible and affordable delivery plan to progress development of this intervention, for potential implementation during Control Period 4 (2009-2014). In general terms, the intervention would improve service provision and modal shift and would therefore be met with public approval. The movement of freight from road to rail would be generally welcomed.

Possible costs

A.241 Costs for the passenger service enhancement are estimated to be in the range £100m - £250m for the Phase 1 passenger improvements, and a further cost of £100m - £250m for Phase 2. The additional freight improvements are estimated to cost £50m - £100m.

Deliverability

A.242 The deliverability of the intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. The crossing over the Montrose Basin at Usan would potentially impact negatively on the local environment, and will need to be planned with care. However, this component if constructed would provide operational efficiencies and remove the only single track section of the East Coast Main Line. The physical works do not use any untried construction, although localised issues requiring increased technical capabilities to overcome might arise as the design process progresses. There are a large number of structures along the route for improvement, including under and over-bridges, viaducts and tunnels. All will need to be checked to determine the need for suitable upgrade to allow envisaged line speed and freight gauge enhancements. Additional loops will also be needed to allow freight trains to be passed.

A.243 During implementation of the proposed improvements the line might be closed for a period of time which would affect current users. Enhanced service frequencies would require additional rolling stock, train crew and timetable amendments. The sourcing of more powerful rolling stock would further enhance the benefits of this intervention.

A.244 The environmental impacts this intervention has on biodiversity and water quality have been identified at the strategic level as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Appropriate Assessment. Appropriate mitigation and avoidance measures have been identified and will be further refined should this intervention be taken forward.

24 - West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements

Intervention description

A.245 This intervention supports the terminal capacity issues in Glasgow, which significantly constrain the future ability of the rail network in the West of Scotland to respond to challenges and facilitate change. This intervention supports the objectives to address rail capacity issues in central Glasgow and increase public transport access to areas of economic activity. It also assists in contributing to objectives within corridors that serve Glasgow. The detail of the strategy builds on improvements to be delivered through the Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvements Programme, and could include:

  • The development of a Metro/Light Rapid Transit network across Glasgow comprising a mixture of conversion of heavy rail (e.g. part or all of the Cathcart Circle), lines on existing redundant infrastructure (e.g. Great Western Road / Botanic Gardens), new lines (e.g. Clyde Waterfront) and some on-road or next-to-road sections; and/or
  • The provision of a new city centre station linking the rail network to the south and east of the city; and/or
  • The provision of a new city centre station linking the north and south rail networks.

A.246 Both of the new city centre station options would provide additional platform capacity in the city centre and permit cross-city services to be provided.

A.247 A Metro/Light Rapid Transit system could include new stations, improved service frequencies and improved access to and across central Glasgow.  The system would be rolled out on a phased basis. The operational concept for the system using proven technology could be expanded to include a new crossing of the Clyde to around the Southern General Hospital and other lines to link areas not currently served by the heavy rail network.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.248 Existing Glasgow rail terminal capacity will be at capacity within the timeframe of the STPR. The lack of future rail terminal capacity places a significant constraint on the provision of additional rail services to meet future growth.

A.249 The analysis has identified that previous development of the rail network in the West of Scotland has been successful in making best use of the network by implementing small scale interventions and targeting individual constraints. The issue of terminal capacity cannot be addressed in this way, meaning that a ‘step-change’ is required in order to meet predicted future demand. This ‘step-change’ will be supported by some smaller scale interventions and enabling works. Some of these may be deliverable earlier than the major component(s) and allow some interim relief to be gained.

A.250 Detailed analysis of the problems has been undertaken to understand the nature of the terminal capacity issues within the wider West of Scotland context. This analysis, in conjunction with the objectives, has allowed the identification of broad core elements, each of which could form the basis of the strategy to address the objectives:

  • Development of a Metro/Light Rapid Transit network; and/or
  • New city centre station to improve capacity and cross city links.

A.251 Development of these core elements has been undertaken to a level to confirm that each could provide a workable solution. This has included consideration of phasing and interaction both within and beyond the STPR period to deliver a meaningful solution. The elements identified vary in terms of cost, risk, phasing, potential benefits, delivery timescale and in the way that they address the objectives. The elements are also not exclusive, so the strategy could for example include a new city centre station and the development of certain Metro/light Rapid Transit lines.

A.252 The strategy will provide a level of ‘step-change’ that permits a fundamental restructuring and realignment of services across the West of Scotland and potentially beyond. The details of this are undefined, meaning that the potential benefits that could be gained are not yet fully understood. Similarly, the extent to which the Metro/Light Rapid Transit network would be developed is not a fixed proposal, but a number of phases have been identified and considered. It is however understood that the additional capacity provided by the overall strategy would be such that it would provide for a variety of potential service enhancements, including other interventions identified within STPR.

A.253 This intervention would complement the development of intercity rail operations, giving an expanded public transport hierarchy.  Metro/Light Rapid Transit could provide for inner suburban movements, leaving heavy rail to cater principally for outer suburban and links to surrounding towns.  By providing cross-city routes, the Metro/Light Rapid Transit network could connect across Glasgow and also take pressure off the existing interchange facilities focused in the city centre.

Links to other strategies

A.254 The need to target capacity issues in the Glasgow suburban network and central Glasgow has been highlighted by Scotland’s Railways and Network Rail’s Scotland Route Utilisation Strategy. The conversion of parts of the Glasgow suburban rail network to light rail operations has been identified in Scotland’s Railways and the Scottish Planning Assessment.

Current status of project

A.255 There is currently no formal commitment to this intervention.

Possible costs

A.256 The scale of investment required to deliver one, or a combination, of the elements has been considered in the context of providing a package that effectively addresses the objectives. On this basis, the estimated cost is in the range of £1.5bn to £3bn, although some of this would extend beyond the STPR delivery period.

Deliverability

A.257 At this stage of intervention development, it is considered that the various options would be technically and operationally feasible to build. There are a number of significant planning and construction risks associated with these options. There are also a number of uncertainties at this stage. A more detailed assessment is required to quantify these risks and reduce the uncertainties.

25 — Light Rapid Transit connections between Fife and edinburgh

Intervention description

A.258 This intervention supports the objectives to increase public transport capacity between Fife and Edinburgh and supports connections to the proposed national developments of the Forth Replacement Crossing and Edinburgh Airport (Strategic Airport Enhancements) identified in the National Planning Framework (NPF2).

A.259 The intervention would consist of a bus based rapid transit service over the Forth providing improved connections across the Forth Estuary. In particular it would connect the communities in Fife with the business and commercial opportunities in Edinburgh and West Lothian.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government's Purpose

A.260 This intervention would ease congestion by offsetting the forecast decrease in capacity for road users and would result in a slight increase in the 60-minute commutable market area for Edinburgh.

A.261 This intervention could provide an efficient means to access West Edinburgh, including Edinburgh Airport from Fife complementing the heavy rail connections via a new interchange at Gogar (as part of Edinburgh to Glasgow Rail Improvements Programme).

A.262 Overall the proposed intervention performs strongly against the stated objectives and could be implemented in conjunction with strategic Park-&-Ride and the provision of priority vehicle lanes.

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Links to other strategies

A.263 This intervention is dependent on the Forth Replacement Crossing. Provision for segregated public transport services is being considered in that intervention’s development and is highlighted in the SEStran Regional Transport Strategy.

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Current status of project

A.264 Options for provision for Light Rapid Transit (LRT) interventions are being considered as part of the planning of the Forth Replacement Crossing. There has been no specific detailed consultation on this individual intervention, however it is expected that any measure which increases public transport capacity and promotes modal shift to more sustainable transport would achieve public support.

Possible costs

A.265 The total cost is estimated to be in the range of £10m to £50m.

Deliverability

A.266 The deliverability of this intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. The intervention is dependent on the provision of a segregated LRT route across the Forth. There are no significant technical issues or operational issues related to the implementation of this intervention or during its projected life.

26 — Rail Enhancements between Inverclyde / Ayrshire and Glasgow

Intervention description

A.267 This intervention would provide four trains-per-hour each in both directions between Glasgow and Ayr, Glasgow and Kilmarnock and Glasgow and Gourock with each route served by two semi-fast services and two stopping services.

A.268 The Paisley Canal line would be reconnected to the Ayrshire line and four trains-per-hour between Glasgow and Johnstone. This would also provide an alternative route for passenger and freight services to and from Ayrshire. The intervention would also provide two trains-per-hour between Glasgow and Wemyss Bay. As well as additional rolling stock, this is likely to require the following infrastructure enhancements:

  • Signalling upgrades between Kilwinning and Paisley;
  • Reinstatement of the line from Elderslie to Paisley Canal, provision of double track and electrification on the existing Paisley Canal branch and increased track capacity between Paisley and Glasgow;
  • Provision of turnback facilities at Johnstone;
  • Extension to the Lugton loop and a new loop between Kilmaurs and Stewarton;
  • Additional platform capacity at Glasgow Central as described in Intervention 24 (West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements);
  • Improvements to stations to enhance the environment for passengers and increase car park capacity (e.g. Prestwick, Ayr, Troon, Glengarnock, Kilwinning).

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.269 This intervention would provide a ‘step-change’ in rail service provision to the west and south west. This would result in a significant contribution to the objectives to increase rail capacity to Ayrshire and capacity and journey time to Inverclyde.

A.270 The feasibility of this intervention is dependent on being able to provide a solution to more platform capacity in central Glasgow to accommodate the services, as proposed in Intervention 24 (West of Scotland Strategic Rail Enhancements).

A.271 The improved services provide relief for the identified overcrowding issue on the south west electric services and give opportunity for modal shift from road to rail, particularly from Kilmarnock where the increased service frequency is high.

A.272 This intervention is expected to have a moderate positive environmental impact on air quality as a modal shift from road to rail is envisaged to reduce congestion leading to a contribution to improved air quality.

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Links to other strategies

A.273 Improved services on this corridor have been highlighted in the relevant Regional Transport Strategies (RTS), the National Transport Strategy (NTS) (Scotland’s Railways) and in the Joint Transport Strategy for Western Scotland to 2025. The requirement for effective transport links to support the development and implementation of the proposed national development at Glasgow Airport (Strategic Airport Enhancements) is identified in the National Planning Framework (NPF2).

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Current status of project

A.274 This intervention has not previously been made public. However, it is expected that the intervention would be generally supported by the public and other agencies.

Possible costs

A.275 The total cost (assuming that platform capacity is available at Glasgow Central) is estimated to be in the range of £250m-£500m.

Deliverability

A.276 The deliverability of the intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. The intervention is highly dependent on being able to provide a solution to more platform capacity in central Glasgow to accommodate the services, e.g. through the conversion of the Cathcart Circle to Metro operation, through alternative proposals to divert services or to constructing additional capacity.

A.277 Doubling the track along the Kilmarnock to Barrhead line would cause some closures during construction. Along the route there is approximately 3km between Kilmaurs and Kilmarnock affected by mining. With no viable diversion route this is likely to increase pressure on the road network into Glasgow during these periods.

A.278 Some of the original trackbed between Paisley Canal Station and Elderslie has been sold and developed. This will make the process of returning the route to a twin-track railway more complex than it might otherwise have been. The extension of the Paisley Canal Line to Elderslie would provide an alternative route for Glasgow to Ayr passenger trains and freight traffic, including coal trains from Hunterston to Longannet. This could free up some capacity in the bottleneck area between Paisley and Shields. Providing additional capacity between Glasgow and Shields would be extremely challenging. Following construction, it is unlikely that any factors would adversely affect the operation of the increased service frequencies on railway services between Glasgow and Inverclyde during its projected life. However the doubling of the service frequency to Wemyss Bay over the single track branch line from Port Glasgow and the tight presentation times required at Paisley Gilmour Street would reduce journey time reliability and increase the impact from delays on other services.

27 — Enhancements to Rail Freight between Glasgow and the Border via West Coast Main Line

Intervention description

A.279 This intervention would allow an increase in the number of freight paths on the West Coast Main Line between Glasgow and the Border by enhancing the rail infrastructure. This would include measures such as:

  • Lengthening of loops;
  • Removal of speed limits that are below 75 mph for freight trains;
  • Increasing the loading gauge on the route; and
  • Increasing freight terminal capacity.

A.280 This intervention may also include additional capacity between Mossend and Coatbridge.

A.281 Widening of the track cuttings in places may require land take, or the construction of earth retaining structures where space is limited.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government's Purpose

A.282 This intervention would improve capacity for rail freight between Scotland and England by providing enhanced facilities on the West Coast Main Line. This would contribute to the freight objective identified on Corridor 18 (Glasgow to North West England and the Border) to transfer freight from road to rail.

A.283 There would be environmental benefits by providing additional paths for freight trains as rail would be expected to capture a greater proportion of cross-border freight traffic thereby reducing road-related emissions. New rail infrastructure could adversely affect the environment; however, it is possible that any such impacts could be mitigated at project design level.

A.284 This intervention could interact with any similar proposals developed by the department for transport on the West Coast Main Line south of Carlisle.

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Links to other strategies

A.285 The significance of international rail freight access was highlighted in the National Transport Strategy (NTS) (Freight Action Plan and Scotland’s Railways) and the National Planning Framework (NPF2).

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Current status of project

A.286 There has been no detailed consultation specifically on this individual intervention; however it is expected that any measure which promotes modal shift to more sustainable transport would achieve overall public support.

Possible costs

A.287 Estimated costs for this intervention are estimated to be in the range £250m - £500m. This is substantially cheaper than the alternative intervention for enhanced freight capacity via the Dumfries route, leading to this intervention being preferred on the basis of affordability.

Deliverability

A.288 The deliverability of the intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. There are a number of technical issues associated with this intervention which involve the increased paths for freight trains possibly requiring new track, improved signalling and new rolling stock. The rail line between Coatbridge and Mossend involves the need to cross the A8 which would affect existing road users during the implementation of this intervention.

A.289 During construction, the reduced capacity and available paths for West Coast Main Line could affect trains on this route and cause delays for existing users. The new enhancements would provide additional capacity and diversionary routes for rail freight. The provision of W12 Gauge would permit larger containers to be carried, maximising the use of limited freight paths.

28 — Inverkeithing to Halbeath Rail Line

Intervention description

A.290 This intervention supports the objective to maintain the 60-minute commutable labour market within Edinburgh at the current level and improve access to south Fife. It would also support the objective of promoting public transport journey time reductions between Aberdeen, Inverness, Perth and Edinburgh by reducing journey times between Inverkeithing and Ladybank.

A.291 This intervention would consist of a direct double track rail link between Halbeath and Inverkeithing, including new junctions at Inverkeithing and Halbeath.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government's Purpose

A.292 This intervention would reduce journey times between Edinburgh and Perth; and Inverness, Aberdeen and the Central Belt, although the reduction is unlikely to be significant. The greater journey time saving would be for freight, by providing a more effective link to the Rosyth port from the south, helping to support future development there.

A.293 This would provide the ability to run more direct services to Edinburgh in conjunction with a strategic Park and Ride facility at Halbeath. The provision of a full Dunfermline loop would enable the segregation of local and intercity services and provide more efficient freight access to the port of Rosyth as trains would not be required to reverse to access the Rosyth branch from the Stirling / Alloa line.

A.294 The National Planning Framework (NPF2) recognises that an effective (road and) rail infrastructure to support national and international connections by sea is essential to ensure that the critical role of ports in supporting and contributing to Scotland’s business and economic health is fully realised. NPF2 does not specify the details of these links in the Inverkeithing and Rosyth area.

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Links to other strategies

A.295 This intervention interacts with other strategies aimed at improving rail inter-city journey times (especially Edinburgh — Inverness on the Highland Main Line). It will require increased capacity between Edinburgh and Inverkeithing / Dunfermline (e.g. as proposed in the Network Rail Route Utilisation Strategy for Scotland) and would need to interface with the proposed restructuring of Edinburgh — Fife services in terms of the usage of this increased capacity.

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Current status of project

A.296 This intervention has been formulated as part of the STPR, and is mentioned in the National Planning Framework. No other work has been carried out on the development of this intervention. However it is expected that any measure which promotes modal shift to more sustainable transport would achieve public support.

Possible costs

A.297 This intervention would require fairly significant new construction and land take. Costs for the intervention are estimated to be in the range £100m - £250m.

Deliverability

A.298 The deliverability of the intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. It is expected that no untried techniques should be required when implementing any aspects of this intervention. However, as the design stages progress, localised issues may arise which would require increased technical capabilities to overcome.

29 — Dundee Northern Relief Road

Intervention description

A.299 This intervention supports the objectives to reduce conflict between strategic and local traffic in Dundee, and to improve the connectivity of Aberdeen to the Central Belt.

A.300 Improvement to the A90 at Dundee could take the form of:

  • A new Northern Peripheral Bypass road around Dundee from the A90 west of Invergowrie to the A90 north of Dundee; or
  • Upgrading of roundabouts and associated junctions on the A90 Kingsway.

A.301 Both options could incorporate a package of associated bus priority, cycle lanes and pedestrian measures on or across the Kingsway.

Contribution towards the Scottish Government’s Purpose

A.302 A new outer bypass would contribute significantly to the objective of reducing journey times between the Central Belt and Aberdeen, with an approximate reduction of 10-15 minutes, and by reducing the conflict between long distance and local traffic through removing up to 50 per cent of traffic from the Kingsway. This would have consequential environmental benefits for those living and working adjacent to the A90, and would enable the Kingsway to perform a role as a local distributor road with potential for the introduction of bus priority measures.

A.303 The outer bypass would have a potentially moderate benefit to Air Quality in Dundee’s Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) by moving 50 per cent of the traffic away from the A90. It would be likely, however, to introduce adverse environmental impacts in the predominately rural landscape north of the city.

A.304 Alternatively, grade separation of all or some of the at-grade roundabouts on the A90 Kingsway would also contribute significantly to the two objectives above. While is may do so to a lesser extent, it would be expected to address the issues Identified.

A.305 Although this option would avoid any environmental impact north of the city, provision of grade separated junctions in an urban area would have adverse impacts on the communities adjacent to the A90. The bypass route is expected to provide more value for money than the on-line upgrade.

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Links to other strategies

A.306 The intervention was highlighted by the Tactrans Regional Transport Partnership.

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Current status

A.307 Strategic roads users may view the bypass positively, and residents of Dundee may perceive benefits from its provision. Equally residents close to the proposed route may have reservations due to increased emissions, visual impact and noise pollution. The environmental impact associated with the outer bypass has prompted public criticism.

Possible costs

A.308 The total cost for this intervention is estimated to be in the range of £100m-£250m.

Deliverability

A.309 The deliverability of the intervention is considered technically and operationally feasible. The outer bypass would, however, impact negatively on the environment to the north of Dundee, which would require careful consideration. A significant body of opinion has been received objecting to the possibility of building a northern bypass. This has come from individuals, community groups and local agencies.

A.310 Although the option of upgrading the existing route would avoid this particular environmental impact north of the city, provision of grade separated junctions in an urban area could have adverse impacts on the communities adjacent to the A90. There are no significant operational issues anticipated from this intervention.


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